Colonization means to settle in an area away from your country of origin. The world ‘expanded’ in the 14th and 15th century and more of Europe sent out ships in search of new lands, resources and trade routes. This is how colonization began. While the first thing that pops up in mind when people think of colonization is the European colonies. Colonization was first introduced during the Roman Empire. Indeed most of the European cities began as Roman colonies. It took place during the time of the Vikings as well who would sail out during the summer to plunder areas like Iceland and England.
English colonization however, started during the reign of the Tudor monarchs, particularly Elizabeth the first. It was during this time that there was an escalating tension between the English and the Spanish and they both wanted to profit from the fruit of the New World.
English Colonization of the Americas
The first wave of English Colonization took place in North America. The initial reason for it was to be a buffer against the Catholic Spain. Through colonization England wanted to be able to procure raw materials at cheaper prices and also have a market for its own finished goods. At the same time, the implementation of this grand concept allowed the poor plaguing the streets of England a new place to reside it.
After many unsuccessful efforts the first colony was set up in Jamestown Virginia. The initial years were dismal. The mortality rates were terrible and the early setters had only a fifty five percent chance of surviving the first five years.
There was a lack of food and even though there were initially 30 tribes who had allied themselves with the settlers under Chief Powhatan, soon differences arose over food. The settlers who were aristocrats would often refuse to work and stole the supplies of the natives who soon cut off the overall supplies to them.
The question which comes to mind then is why did these settlers come to a region which was neither healthy nor hospitable? The answer is tobacco. Tobacco at the time was in great demand back home. The New World as it was called by English had an abundance of land and resources and they could successfully exploit them all.
This is how colonization first began and eventually expanded almost all over the world. It is a historical phenomenon that is still referred to.